How Jamaicans can stay Hydrated with Water in the Summer

The human body is 50% to 70% water, which is needed for the body to function properly.  Water is used by the body for respiration, the diffusion of nutrients to the cells in the body and the removal of waste by the kidneys.

It also keeps the skin hydrated and the brain functioning properly. Muscle tissue is comprised of 75% water which is lost through regular work and exercise.

To sum it up, you can go 40 day without food but you’d only last 7 without water. As such, you should be trying to develop a habit of regular water consumption. So with the summer months on the horizon, how do you stay hydrated?

How to know when you are thirsty – 8 ounces a day should be your goal

The first thing you need to do is constantly drink water; never wait until you feel thirsty or parched, when your throat is dry and your lips start cracking.

This is because the feeling of thirst is in the mind; as soon as the water touches your tongue that feeling will go away, but you may need more water.

Also be careful not to mistake thirst for hunger. Too often people get too thirsty and mistake it for hunger, resulting in overeating. Also do not drink while eating, as this disrupts the digestive process and affect the effectiveness of the salivary amylase breaking down food.

Practice drinking eight to ten eight-ounce glasses of water per day. Travelling with a water decanter and sip on the liquid throughout the day to achieve that goal. Drink more water if you are before, during and after an exercise session, to keep well hydrated.

So what are the best sources of water?

Sources of water – Flavour it naturally

Aside from your water decanter, you can also get water from other sources e.g. organic water from fruits and vegetables, and, of course, other liquids.

Coconut water is a great source as it keeps you hydrated but provide essential nutrients. If you hate the taste of plain old water, add lime and other fruits to water to enhance the flavour. So how can you tell that you are getting enough water?

Urine colour and weight – Water in the diet changes you

You can check the colour of your urine; take note of how often you are urinating and its colour. Urine colour should be just a light shade of yellow.

If it’s bright yellow, you need more water in your system. Cut down on the fluids if your urine looks colourless as well as hidden sugars (Deer, 2016, August 8) in your diet.

Weighing yourself daily can help check hydration as your weight should not fluctuate too much.

Sports Drinks and Hydration – Replacing lost salts in the morning and during exercise

Choose rehydrated sports drink with low sugar content, especially if you are older (Deer, 2016, December 12); Five grams per eight-ounce is the recommendation.

Always aim to awake hydrated by keeping a glass of water near your bedside for the times you may wake in the middle of the night feeling thirsty. This may also keep you awake, time which you can use to get work done.

Overall the benefits of frequent hydration translate to a better lifestyle in terms of regulating your sugar intake and handling of weight.


  1. Deer, L. (2016, August 8). How to Spot Hidden Sugar and How to Avoid Eating Too Much. Retrieved from
  2. Deer, L. (2016, December 12). Foods Jamaicans must avoid eating as you get older. Retrieved from


How to spot Green Iguanas vs regular lizards in Jamaica’s coming Green Iguana Invasion

Lizards are very interesting reptiles. So it might interest you to know a few things about Jamaican lizards (diGJamaica, 2017, August 14) in light of the coming Iguana invasion (Deer, 2017, September 18).

The Jamaican iguana (Cyclura Collei) is endemic to the island. It was thought to be extinct, until 1948, when a farmer, Edwin Duffus, discovered them in Hellshire Hills in 1990. Concentrated conservation efforts have seen this endangered species make a successful and steady comeback.

Thanks to a recent victory by JET (Jamaica Environment Trust) which has resulted in the Goat islands being declared a UNESCO Biosphere Preserve (Deer, 2017, December 31), their chances may be much improved.

So what about the other lizards in Jamaica. Do they need protecting as well?

Jamaican giant galliwasp – Sly mongoose made them extinct

The Jamaican giant galliwasp (celestus occiduus), which is over 60cm in length, is feared to be extinct, despite out best effort to locate them.

Possible they may have been eaten off by mongoose, the same predator that threatens the more resilient ground lizards (ameiva dorsalis), who, with their beautifully coloured skins, are easy targets for sly mongoose.

This may be their dewlap, the colourful part under the throat of the lizard. This is used by the lizards for communication and competition! The males compete with other males, with the male with the most attractive dewlap, being able to attract female attention and successfully mate.

More fun with Lizard – Geckos, Anoles, Polly lizards and croaking lizards

Aside from lizards, nine species of geckos (family Gekkonidae) are endemic to Jamaica, with one being an introduced species.

The species Anoles, the most studied species of lizards in Jamaica and the Caribbean, lay one egg at a time. They lay one egg every five to seven days in the rainy season. The species of Polly lizards, Sphaerodactylus argus, that are the most common in Jamaica and are not endemic to the island.

Finally, there are croaking lizards (Aristelliger praesignis). These lizards have a sense of community, sharing communal nests, where they lay eggs with hard shells. These nocturnal lizards actually croak in a chorus and walk on well-developed digital pads. They can sustain over 40 times their own body weights on a vertical surface.

So when the Green Iguana invasion from the Cayman Islands (Deer, 2016, July 11), which is having a serious problem with them, happens, you’ll have an idea of what is NOT an iguana, instead of trying to spot large lizards and claim that you saw one.


  1. Deer, L. (2016, July 11). Iguana Invasion in Cayman Island presents Iguana Meat Export Opportunity. Retrieved from
  2. (2017, August 14). 10 Facts About Jamaica’s Lizard Population. Retrieved from
  3. Deer, L. (2017, September 18). Why Jamaica faces a Green Iguana Invasion and how eating Iguana Patties may help. Retrieved from
  4. Deer, L. (2017, December 31). Goat Islands a UNESCO Biosphere Preserve in order to fight Green Iguana InvasionRetrieved from


How Jamaicans can make money from collecting Red Stripe Bottles

“Red Stripe uses returnable glass as part of a broader sustainable approach to doing business. It reduces cost and leaves less of an impact on the environment, but only if those bottles come back after our consumers have finished enjoying our products”

Business development manager at Red Stripe, Rochelle Clarke, commenting on their Glass Bottle Return Program

Yes Jamaicans, you may not realize it, but you can make money by collecting glass bottles. Red Stripe has begun to formalize a relationship with independent bottle collectors (The Jamaica Gleaner, 2018, January 13) in a bid to collect more of their glass bottles from their brewed products.

Returnable glass bottles have a lifespan of four to five years. Red Stripe can save some US$2 million from in 2018 alone.

Red Stripe plans to re-invest this money into their long-term sustainability plans to improve efficiencies and productivity and the independent contractors will help them realize this goal, to quote Business development manager at Red Stripe, Rochelle Clarke: “We now have a structured system which includes these independent contractors who help us to bring back the glass. It works for them, it works for the consumers, and it works for us”.

The company is now on a recruitment drive to increase the pool of collectors, with bus driver Courtney Ewen being the latest to join, quote: “I immediately jumped at the chance to relieve them of the burden and at the same time make some money”.

He notes that many in the Portmore area who stored the bottles to sell during the Christmas season or back to school period to help offset expenses had a challenge in getting them to Red Stripe.

So after Red Stripe had formally approached him to become an independent bottle collector, he began talking to many potential clients, as the potential to help the environment and make money was now possible, to quote Ewen: “I’ve always been concerned about the environment, so when I heard about the chance to earn extra money by collecting bottles for Red Stripe, to do this as a business, it was a definite yes for me”.

Red Stripe even pitched in with Red Stripe branded shirts to put many at ease when they are approached by the independent bottle collectors who may be rolling through, asking for their empties, to quote Ewan: “We have contracts, business cards, and Red Stripe branded shirts to help with marketing. People are cautious of strangers when approached about business ventures and things like collections, so these marketing tools help me to have easier conversations and buy-in from householders”.

Red Stripe still has ways to go; they need collectors all across the island, as Rochelle Clarke points out, quote: “We now have a small number of contractors, but we’re looking to expand that group so that we can have collectors right across the country. Interested entrepreneurs and consumers with bottles to be returned can call our hotline at 1-888-429-5225 for more information on bottle return options”.

You can become an independent bottle collector by calling Red Stripe on this number:



  1. The Jamaica Gleaner. (2018, January 13). Making Money By Collecting Bottles. Retrieved from



How Jamaicans can make US$25 per hour at Home as a Virtual Assistant

Hello again, my fellow Jamaicans? Ready to make money online?

If you’ve read my blog article on freelancing (Deer, 2017, September 18), you may be wondering to yourself, are there more profitable and steady freelancing opportunities than those mentioned?

Granted the ones mentioned in my original freelancing article (Deer, 2017, September 18) make money, but that is really passive income; it’s not regular and is not meant to be a job replacement, but a supplement to your current income.

Globally, there is a demand for certain types of Freelancing jobs:

  1. Customer Service
  2. Virtual Assistant
  3. Website Testing
  4. Website Research
  5. Social Media Moderator
  6. Writing
  7. Translating Languages
  8. Transcribing video and audio

These types of work have high demand due to the fact that:

  • Volume of work is high all year round
  • Requires specialized skills that few possess in any one country
  • Traditionally, employees are paid hourly or on a contract basis in a regular job setting

So much so that some Call Centers in the BPO (Business Process Outsourcing) in Jamaica specialized in what is often referred to as backoffice work, such as Kingston Call Center (Deer, 2017, July 23).

They also provide work-at-home jobs for Virtual Assistants, effectively making them a Virtual Call Center Services similar to Versatel Marketing (Deer, 2018, January 6).

Virtual Assistant – Payment and Hardware required

First, before you can work online, a few things are essential:

  1. Paypal Account (Deer, 2015, September 9) as your main Payment Gateway
  2. Payoneer Account (Deer, 2015, September 10), an Bank of America Prepaid Debit Card
  3. Scotia VISA Debit (Deer, 2012, February 13) or CIBC First Caribbean VISA Debit Card
  4. Broadband Internet at home from FLOW or Digicel Play (Deer, 2016, June 28)
  5. Notebook or Journal to keep Track of all your Online Accounts and Passwords
  6. Portfolio of Published Written Work on a blog or Website online i.e. Blogs, e-books
  7. A VPN (Virtual Private Network) Connection
  8. A Friend or relative living abroad

The Paypal Account (Deer, 2015, September 9) allows you to receive payment from clients online. The Payoneer Account (Deer, 2015, September 10) comes with a special Prepaid Mastercard that can also receive payment but allows you to use your earnings locally at any POS (Point of Sale) device or online like a regular Credit Card. The Scotia VISA Debit Card (Deer, 2012, February 13) or CIBC First Caribbean VISA Debit Card is just to verify your Paypal Account.

Broadband Internet at home from FLOW or Digicel Play (Deer, 2016, June 28) is a must. Some jobs, such as a Webcam modelling (Deer, 2016, October 15) and video editing (Deer, 2017, November 8) will require you to have solid Broadband connectivity.

A friend or relative abroad with a US address is also great, but you can easily use your ShipMe (Deer, 2013, September 15) address for the purpose of having a mail-able US based address in case they need to send you an item.

Finally, the VPN (Virtual Private Network) is a must (Deer, 2017, June 11), as you need to mask your country of origin. Once you have these things in place, you’re good to go.

The requirements for the job are quite simple really. They can be split in to two parts:

  • Work Qualifications
  • Computer and Equiptment

In terms of Work Qualifications, having at least 6 months experience working in a formal Call Center Environment. You’re voice needs to be gentle and you should have a neutral or American accent!!!

The Computer and Equiptment Requirements are a bit more important:

  • Desktop Computer or Laptop
  • Intel Core i3 Processor
  • 4 GB to 8GB RAM
  • Google Chrome Browser
  • 12MBps or higher Broadband Connection
  • UPS (Uninterruptible Power supply) to guard against power cuts
  • Headset with noise cancellation microphone
  • Work Area designed room fitted with anechoic filters

The work area needs to have noise dampening covering, such as pointed sponge on the walls to eggs carton cases that can reduce reflected noise and external noise. Also, your headset need to be a noise cancelling Headset that filters out external noise as well, as your calls need to sound as if you’re in a quiet office space.

Virtual Assistant – Average pay higher than US$10 per hour

So here’s a list of Virtual Assistant jobs that pay more than $10 per hour:

  1. Alorica At Home – Hires home phone agents to take in-coming calls and processing orders. Pay is US$7 to US$20 per hour.
  2. Alpine Access – Hire Customer Service agents in areas such as, tech support, financial, video game support and more. Pay is US$12 per hour and they offer training.
  3. Asurion – Hires work at home agents for customer service positions in tech support. Pay is US$9 and they offer paid training as well.
  4. CleverTech – Hires Tech Support for web design and mobile applications. Pay is US$16 per hour.
  5. Convergys – Hires agents to work from home as an employee. Pay is US$7 an hour and may go up to US$9 an hour.
  6. Direct Interactions – Hire agents to take calls from motorist who have unpaid parking tickets. This can be a tough one because you will be dealing with difficult callers. You will be paid US$9.25 to start and after training it is US$10. Those who speak two languages including English can earn around $12 to $13 an hour.
  7. Gengo – Hires translators worldwide. You will be required to speak multiple languages. Pay is said to be US$10 per hour.
  8. Go Transcript – Hires agents for transcription and data entry jobs. Pay is US$10 per hour with US$5 signup bonus
  9. Great Virtual Work – Work as sales agents and customer service agent. Pay is US$10 per hour
  10. LiveOps – Hires agents to take inbound and some outbound calls from home. Pay is said to be US$30 per hour in the top percentile.
  11. NexRep – Hires agents to work at home taking inbound and outbound calls. Pay is US$5 per hour based on talk time plus commissions and bonuses.
  12. Rev – Hires freelance transcribers, offers entry level positions. Pay is said to be US$20-US$25 per hour.
  13. Sitel – Hires home agents for various positions, customer service, tech support, scheduling etc. You will be an employee and not an independent contractor. Pay is US$9-$11 per hour and offer lots of benefit and 401K.
  14. Teletech – Hires virtual customer service, tech support and sales in US , UK and world wide. They hire agents as employees not Independent Contractors. Pay is said to be US$9-US$10 per hour. You may need landline phone.
  15. Transcribeme – Hires beginners or entry level transcribers. Pay is US$15 per hour
  16. Working Solutions – Hire for are in data entry, customer service, tech support and online chat positions. Pay is US$10 per hour
  17. WorldWide101 – Hires independent contractor job working as their virtual assistant. Pay is US$10 per hour US$15- US$25 per hour.

So these are the websites that provide hourly paid projects and will pay more than US$10 per hour.

The salary is usually sent to you PayPal, Payoneer Card or Western Union Money Transfer is you request. Sharing is caring so share this list with your friends!!!


  1. Deer, L. (2012, February 13). How to use Scotia VISA Debit Card Online. Retrieved from
  2. Deer, L. (2013, September 15). How to ship things to Jamaica after you’re purchase them online. Retrieved from
  3. Deer, L. (2015, September 9). How Jamaicans can make money online – Setting up a Paypal Account. Retrieved from
  4. Deer, L. (2015, September 10). How Jamaicans can make money online – Setting up a Payoneer Prepaid Mastercard. Retrieved from
  5. Deer, L. (2016, June 28). Digicel Play has 35,000 customers as FLOW Jamaica Horizon fails to impress. Retrieved from
  6. Deer, L. (2016, October 15). How Jamaicans can make US$51,000 per month as a Webcam Model. Retrieved from
  7. Deer, L. (2016, December 17). How Jamaicans can make US$1000 per month from Online Survey Websites. Retrieved from
  8. Deer, L. (2017, June 11). How Jamaicans can find reliable free VPN to work anonymously online. Retrieved from
  9. Deer, L. (2017, July 23). How Kingston Call Center is creating the Jamaican Tele-commuting Workplace. Retrieved from
  10. Deer, L. (2017, September 18). How Jamaicans can make US$1000 per month as a Freelancer. Retrieved from
  11. Deer, L. (2017, November 8). How Jamaicans can money from Transcribing, Captioning and Translating Audio and Video. Retrieved from
  12. Deer, L. (2018, January 6). How Jamaicans can make JA$100,000 in a Virtual Call Center Job at Versatel Marketing. Retrieved from
  13. Deer, L. (2018, October 15). How Jamaicans can make US$51,000 per month as a Webcam Model. Retrieved from

How the NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey reveals Jamaican students are turning to Drugs and Sex

The NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey, which was released in 2017, is still very relevant in 2018.

The study was conducted by the NCDA (National Council on Drug Abuse) survey of 1,667 students aged 13 to 17 years old in 41 schools islandwide. It was funded by the following NGO’s:

  • WHO (World Health Organization)
  • PAHO (Pan American Health Organization)
  • OAS (Organization of American States)
  • IAACC (Inter-American Abuse Control Commission)

Their 2017 Survey reveals that while most kids are fairly normal (Gilpin, J. A., 2017, November 29) and school violence is trending down, student are dealing with their emotional problems by abusing various substances, from alcohol, tobacco, painkillers and cough medicine (Wilson-Harris, N., 2017, December 3) to Sex (Gilpin, J. A., 2017, November 29 ).

NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey collected data from the student on the following:

  • Alcohol
  • Tobacco and other drugs
  • Dietary behaviour
  • Physical activity
  • Mental health
  • Sexual behaviour
  • Violence and injury
  • Protective factors

So let’s get into the statistics, as they reveal a lot about what Jamaican High School Children may be facing in today’s schools.

NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey – Student are becoming less violent as they internalize their emotions

According to research analyst at NCDA analyst Uki Atkinson, there has been a drastic reduction in bullying and physical fights.

She made this revelation at the NCDA’s youth situation forum ‘Protect our Youth, Protect our Future’, which was held at the Pegasus hotel in New Kingston on Tuesday November 28, 2017, quote:  “In looking at the data, we see, for example, that 31 per cent reported being in physical fights and this is, in fact, a reduction when we look at previous years. I thought it would have been the reverse, based on what we are seeing in the society, but based on the data we are seeing, there has, in fact, been improvement”.

2017 Global School Health Survey and Rapid Situation Assessment reveal the following:

  • 41% of students report being bullied in 2010
  • 24% of students report being bullied in 2017
  • 46% of students reported being physically attacked in 2010
  • 27% of students reported being physically attacked in 2017
  • 51% of students reported being involved in physical attacking other students in 2010
  • 31% of students reported being involved in physical attacking other students in 2017

Strangely, NCDA analyst Uki Atkinson wasn’t quite sure what accounted for the sudden drop in fights in schools, quote:  “Based on the comparison, between 2010 and 2017 physical injuries and exposure to violence have been on the decline. This could be as a result of health-promotion activities, interventions and so on. Quite a few organizations are doing significant work in our schools”.

But the Director of safety in schools at the education ministry, Assistant Superintendent Coleridge Minto, backed up his claim, quote: “Violence in schools is actually down. When we look at 2012, there were 915 fights; 2013, 786; and although we only had 16 schools reported for 2016 – I suspect all schools were not reporting as they should – but all the major categories show that we were actually having a decline”.

This is indeed quite impressive decline in reported cases of fights:

  • 915 fights in 2012
  • 786 fights in 2013
  • 16 fights in 2016

He even made a point to state the many of the incidents of fights reported in the media are overblown, as the data indicates otherwise, quote: “What has happened is that there will be a major fight in a school today, it is reported all over the media and it looks as if there is an increase, but all the data over the last three to five years has been showing a reduction”.

So based on the 2017 Global School Health Survey and Rapid Situation Assessment, student behaviour is improving:

  • 80% are consider “normal” based on society and school standards
  • 10-15% have some behavioural problems,
  • 5% have chronic behavioural issues

According to Assistant Superintendent Coleridge Minto, these cases of chronic behavioural issues are being handled by the police, CDA (Child Development Agency) or a psychiatrist, quote: “The data is showing that 80 per cent of our students are normal, about 10-15 per cent have some behavioural problems, while one to five per cent have chronic behavioural issues, and these children are the ones you find before the police or CDA (Child Development Agency) or a psychiatrist. Majority of our students are normal”.

Given the fact that there is no known reason for this decline in one type of aggressive behaviour, the cause needs to be explored. It may hint at student or teachers either underreporting violent incidents or dealing with their aggression via abusing drugs.

NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey – Parents know of Drug Abuse and do nothing

It seems the latter may be true, as the NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey reveals that student may be abusing Alcohol, Tobacco and Sex (Gilpin, J. A., 2017, November 29) to deal with their emotional issues.

Worse, 50% of student reported their usage to their parents, who did nothing about it, to quote NCDA analyst Uki Atkinson: “In terms of parental knowledge of consumption of alcohol, what we are seeing is that over half of the adolescents reported that their parents knew that they drink, and there is no significant difference between the male and female students. That supports the cultural acceptance issue that we face with alcohol consumption”.

This may be due to the general acceptance that kids will experiment with alcohol once in awhile and nothing was wrong with that. This is especially true in the Inner City and Garrison areas where Marijuana usage is observably high, especially in areas where unemployment is high. So parent may simply not bother to take it seriously, even when they spoke to their child about it; drinking and smoking, after all, was a part of many parent growing up, and they came out find, they may reason.

NCDA analyst Uki Atkinson, who was speaking at the NCDA’s youth situation forum ‘Protect our Youth, Protect our Future’, which was held at the Pegasus hotel in New Kingston on Tuesday November 28, 2017, hints at this, quote: “Parenting factors were associated with all forms of drug use, so quality time that was spent showing affection and proper advice were lacking. In fact, the young people whose parents gave them advice were no different in terms of drug use than the ones who reported that their parents did not give them any”.

Jamaica is faced with a parenting crisis; parents, both old and young, are not taking substance abuse seriously.

NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey – Older and Younger Parents still not telling children about Sexual Responsibility

The NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey also revealed that parents are not addressing the sexual behaviour (Gilpin, J. A., 2017, November 29) among young people, as many are engaging in risky sexual encounters.  This despite 50% of them knowing about their child engaging in promiscuous or sexual behaviour with their peers or even adults!

Student from corporate area schools used to create problems for the JUTC (Jamaica Urban Transit Corporation) by having sex in various places at the JUTC Transport Center in Half Way Tree (Deer, 2015, October 4). The Security and Police presence has since been beefed up, with CCTV Cameras and more lighting making this less likely.

So the student have resorted to making the Malls their playground, where they have been caught having sex in the bathrooms. This has become so much of a problem that the Pembroke Hall Primary and Pembroke High School have been banned (Robinson, 2018, January 7) from going over to the Boulevard Supercentre off Washington Boulevard.

Parents need to re-engage their children on acceptable sexual behaviour. Many parents may see it as being their children experimenting, reflecting on their own childhood experience.

Some parents may even be uncomfortable with talking to their teenager about sex, often resorting to using metaphors instead of being matter-of-fact with information on sexual practices, to quote NCDA analyst Uki Atkinson: “Parenting advice did not impact sexual behaviour, because parents would only say to their children, ‘Don’t bother with the hanky panky,’ and no explanation is given. Parents are still telling children that they were born on the doorstep, and so the advice they are given is not influencing them in terms of their sexual behaviours”.

This may be more difficult for boys, especially those that live in the Inner City or Garrison areas, as they are now being pressured into sex by more sexually aggressive girls. Boys already perform poorly in English as it’s perceived as effeminate (Deer, 2016, June 1), as many of them fear being bullied by other as well as by these sexually aggressive girls.

Worse, some of these sexually aggressive girls may be engaging in transactional sex being fuelled by the proliferation of smartphones and WhatsApp (Deer, 2016, August 24), which makes it very easy to communicate with other males and hide from parents, unlike Facebook and other Social Networks where some parents hang out!!

Parents need to spend more time with their children to explain the dangers of early sexual encounters (Gilpin, J. A., 2017, November 29) and how to deal with more sexually aggressive females, as pointed out by NCDA analyst Uki Atkinson: “Less than half of participants reported that parents spent quality time with them and there is not a significant difference between males and females, but there’s a slightly higher proportion of females reporting that parents spend quality time. So we have what I would describe as a parenting crisis in this country and it is not only about children raising children; we are seeing it across the spectrum in terms of older parents and younger parents”.

The NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey needs to be followed up by additional continuous yearly surveys to track these trends in High Schools. Clearly, albeit displays of aggression are down, student are coping by turning to alcohol, tobacco, painkillers and cough medicine (Wilson-Harris, N., 2017, December 3) to Sex (Gilpin, J. A., 2017, November 29) to deal with their emotional problems.

Here’s the link:

NCDA 2017 Jamaica School Health Survey


  1. Deer, L. (2015, October 4). How Jamaican Children are having Sex in JUTC Transport Center – How Free Wi-Fi and CCTV Cameras can help. Retrieved from
  2. Deer, L. (2016, June 1). Why Jamaican boys Dislike CSEC English and Why Oral Exams are necessary. Retrieved from
  3. Deer, L. (2016, August 24). How WhatsApp is fuelling Transaction Sex among Jamaican Teenagers. Retrieved from
  4. Gilpin, J.A. (2017, November 29). Calmer Students – New Report Shows Drastic Reduction Of Violence In Schools. Retrieved from
  5. Gilpin, J. A. (2017, November 29). Parenting Crisis! – More Than 50 Per Cent Of Parents Know Their Children Are Using Illegal Substances And Do Nothing About It. Retrieved from
  6. Wilson-Harris, N. (2017, December 3). High Schoolers’ Cocktails – Teens Abusing Drug Mixes Made From Cough Syrup, Popular Candies – NCDA. Retrieved from
  7. Robinson, C. (2018, January 7). Plaza Ban! – Students Barred From Shopping Mall. Retrieved from